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"The existence of two distinct types is actually a fact that has long been known: a fact that in one form or another has dawned upon the observer of human nature or shed light upon the brooding reflection of the thinker . . . .
-- Carl Gustav Jung, 1924

Introversion and Extroversion

The idea that not all individuals are constructed on the same ground plan -- that there might be two human natures instead of one -- has haunted philosophy since the Greeks. Indeed, what if there were three, or more, basic character types?

The literature of modern psychology is rife with amusing speculations in this area, but little that can be called serious. The classic exceptions are James and Jung, both covered in the bibliography given below. You can also see an outline of Paul's basic semantics, a glossary of the terms that Paul uses, a timeline of polarity theory, and a selection of interesting quotations from historical sources, by clicking on the following links.

See some quotations about psychological polarity
See a timeline of polarity awareness
See a bibliography of psychological polarity

Paul Rosenfels
Read about Paul's writing style
Read about Paul and William James
See a thumbnail sketch of Paul's semantics
See a Rosenfels glossary
See a Rosenfels bibliography


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